Accelerating SSSP for Power-Law Graphs


The single-source shortest path (SSSP) problem is one of the most important and well-studied graph problems widely used in many application domains, such as road navigation, neural image reconstruction, and social network analysis. Although we have known various SSSP algorithms for decades, implementing one for large-scale power-law graphs efficiently is still highly challenging today, because ① a work-efficient SSSP algorithm requires priority-order traversal of graph data, ② the priority queue needs to be scalable both in throughput and capacity, and ③ priority-order traversal requires extensive random memory accesses on graph data.
In this paper, we present SPLAG to accelerate SSSP for power-law graphs on FPGAs. SPLAG uses a coarse-grained priority queue (CGPQ) to enable high-throughput priority-order graph traversal with a large frontier. To mitigate the high-volume random accesses, SPLAG employs a customized vertex cache (CVC) to reduce off-chip memory access and improve the throughput to read and update vertex data. Experimental results on various synthetic and real-world datasets show up to a 4.9× speedup over state-of-the-art SSSP accelerators, a 2.6× speedup over 32-thread CPU running at 4.4 GHz, and a 0.9× speedup over an A100 GPU that has 4.1× power budget and 3.4× HBM bandwidth. Such a high performance would place SPLAG in the 14th position of the Graph 500 benchmark for data intensive applications (the highest using a single FPGA) with only a 45 W power budget. SPLAG is written in high-level synthesis C++ and is fully parameterized, which means it can be easily ported to various different FPGAs with different configurations. SPLAG is open-source at

In International Symposium on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), ACM.